Lucius Phelps Chamberlain was born in Brookfield, Massachusetts on September 16, 1830 to Eli and Achsah Chamberlain. The eighth of ten children, he was the brother of Daniel Henry Chamberlain, and Rev. Dr. Leander Chamberlain, both of whom achieved national prominence. Educated in local schools, Lucius continued his schooling at Amherst Academy. He taught school for several years, after which he was employed at the State Reformatory at Westboro, MA, for a period of four years. Lucius left Westboro to be come farm superintendent at the Connecticut State School for boys.
He married Eliza A. Merriman in Meriden, Connecticut on April 5, 1859 and lived in Meriden, CT for twenty-five years, serving once as a member of the Common Council there. In 1884 he became a professor of agriculture at the Connecticut Agricultural College at Storrs where he stayed until1902. Lucius moved to the Hartford area in 1902 and to Rocky Hill in 1910. He died in Rocky Hill on February 25, 1916, and was buried in Walnut Grove Cemetery in Meriden.